Transparent Tribe Operating with a New Variant of Crimson RAT

Transparent Tribe is an Advanced Persistence Threat (APT) group that has been active since 2013. Also known as PROJECTM and MYTHIC LEOPARD, the group is highly active and has been engaged in conducting various cyber espionage campaigns. The APT group is suspected to be politically motivated, as its victims include defense and diplomatic professionals. One of the tools used in its campaigns is a .NET RAT (Remote Access Trojan) also known as Crimson RAT. The group was seen to be operating with an updated version of Crimson RAT discovered recently, consisting of a malicious macro embedded in a word file that upon execution drops a payload to set up a communication channel with a Command-and-Control Server (C2/C&C Server). 

Table 1 consists of details of Transparent Tribe. 

Target Afghanistan and India 

Table 1: Details of Transparent Tribe 

The image below depicts the infection flow of Crimson RAT. 

Figure 1: Infection Flow of Crimson RAT 

Case 1:  

Transparent Tribes’ campaigns begin with the delivery of a malicious document file on the targeted victim system, and upon opening the malcrafted document that has embedded macro, users receive a notification regarding a security concern and are instructed to give a consent for enabling the content. 

Figure 2 depicts the word file embedded with malicious macro.  

Figure 2: Malicious word file 

As the infection flow starts off from the execution of the word macro, we were on the lookout for more information regarding the malicious macro. As per OLE Object analysis, the Autoexecution of the Document_open function leads to the payload delivery and its subsequent execution on the victim’s machine.  

Figure 3 showcases the keywords extracted from the malicious word macro.                    

Figure 3: Keywords used in word macro. 

In Figure 4, we can see that the name of the payload file is dubbed as “railthnsrqn” in the macro, along with the use of ALLUSERPROFILE variable, which indicates that the payload might get dropped in C:\ProgramData. 

Figure 4: File creation 

The macro checks for the OS (Operating System) version, and based on whether it is 32-bit or 64-bit, it accordingly selects the payload.  

Figure 5: OS version detection 

The payload gets executed after it’s dropped using shell command.  

Figure 6: Execution of the payload (railthnsrqn.exe). 

Case 2: 

During our research, we also found a different execution technique used by the Crimson RAT to execute its payload. This technique does not use word macros, but a binary executable file that has an embedded word document (containing a CV file). Upon execution, it opens the embedded word document and silently executes its payload in the background.  

Figure 7: Another execution method used by Crimson RAT 

Figure 8Embedded .doc file 

Technical analysis Case 1:  

Upon behavioral analysis, it was verified that the payload file named railthnsrqn.exe was dropped and executed after enabling the macro. 

Figure 9: railthnsrqn.exe sub process. 

Figure 8 depicts the process flow of railthnsrqn.exe.  

Figure 10: Process flow of railthnsrqn.exe 

Upon analyzing the network traffic, we found that multiple TCP requests were made to, which turns out to be the C&C server. 

Figure 11: railthnsrqn.exe trying to establish a TCP connection. 

We found the following hardcoded port numbers during the decompilation of railthnsrqn.exe. 

Figure 12: Hardcoded Port Numbers 

The image below showcases the code used by the payload to exfiltrating the data.  

Figure 13: Data Exfiltration 

Figure 14: Capturing Screenshot 

In Figure 15, we can see the code that has been written to make changes into the registry for persistance and to autostart the malware payload. 

Figure 15: Persistence Mechanism 

Technical analysis Case 2: 

The Figure 16 depicts the execution of payload file (othvidtiraw.exe) in the background. 

Figure 16:  Execution of payload(othvidtiraw.exe) 

We can see in the figure below that the payload is trying to connect to Command and Control (C2) server and is also accessing the registry for persistence.  

Figure 17: Process flow of othvidtiraw.exe 

Table 2 consist of: MITRE ATT&CK mapping  

Tactics  Techniques  Procedures  
Execution  T1204  Manual Execution by User 
Persistence  T1060  Changes the Autorun Value in the Registry. 
Defense Evasion  T1140  Use of Obfuscated Macros. 
Discovery  T1012  Query Registry Check Environment Variables 
Collection  T1113   T1119 Capture Screenshot Automated Collection  
Command and Control  T1095 Non-application Layer Protocol 

Table 2: MITRE ATT&CK mapping 

The Transparent Tribe APT group has been actively exploiting its target using an updated tool set. In the past, we have seen them successfully carrying out their campaigns on defense and diplomatic personnel. The use of new attack techniques helps an attacker to evade security mechanisms, thereby establishing more persistence on the victim network. Individuals are advised to enhance security controls to overcome these new TTPs used by hackers. So far, we have not heard of Transparent Tribe exploiting general public, however, most of victims of the APT group seem to have some relation with Afghanistan or India. 

Cyble will continue to track APT activities to collect advanced threat intelligence related to such campaigns.  


Our recommendations:  

  • We recommend blocking the listed hashes, URLs, and other indicators on your security systems shared in the IoC list below.  
  • Never share personal information, including financial information over the phone, email, or SMSs.  
  • Use strong passwords and enforce multi-factor authentication wherever possible.  
  • Regularly monitor your financial transactions, and if you notice any suspicious activity, contact your bank immediately.  
  • Turn on the automatic software update feature on your computer, mobile, and other connected devices wherever possible and pragmatic.  
  • Use a reputed anti-virus and Internet security software package on your connected devices, including PC, laptop, and mobile.  
  • People concerned about their exposure to the Dark web can register at to ascertain their exposure.  
  • Refrain from opening untrusted links and email attachments without verifying their authenticity.  

Indicators of Compromise (IOCs):  

Table 3 includes Indicators of Compromise (IOC).  

HASH  d40b8c55edf7d7f118650135ee37080e8e296e635af5481e1a2850088524196c 
HASH  012eba6182006cf9772ff509896fc2a929b5fe3062f29ed70c451c8ebd393d27 
HASH  e16df177681e356ab8a9491e841fa1a757bc40069e2f42493b9238f0584cb9f1 
HASH  2db4365498a82081bce864196207c9478da3466167291ff7f36f93c9483fa624 
HASH  3e9d94714c78d02eedc5f9085982edd5b840950e65702d8ee1544b643733570b 
HASH  4c8e0459524380a9f00ffc58913f461c3e1d8737dd18252881f09e2d416e4f73 

 Table 3: Indicators of Compromise  

About Cyble: 

Cyble is a global threat intelligence SaaS provider that helps enterprises protect themselves from cybercrimes and exposure in the darkweb. Its prime focus is to provide organizations with real-time visibility to their digital risk footprint. Backed by Y Combinator as part of the 2021 winter cohort, Cyble has also been recognized by Forbes as one of the top 20 Best Cybersecurity Straups to Watch in 2020. Headquartered in Alpharetta, Georgia and with offices in Australia, Singapore, and India, Cyble has a global presence. To learn more about Cyble, visit

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